Vladimir Putin has overseen annual nuclear exercises by Russia’s strategic nuclear forces.
Ballistic and cruise missiles were launched in the Far East and Arctic, the Kremlin said.
The US was told about the drill under the terms of the New Start arms treaty.
Ahead of the exercise, military officials in Washington pointed out that in notifying the US the Russians were complying with arms control obligations.
Nato is also staging its own nuclear exercises, dubbed Steadfast Noon, in north-western Europe.