Former US intelligence contractor Edward Snowden, who leaked extensive US intelligence surveillance operations, has been granted Russian citizenship.
The decree was signed by Russian President Vladimir Putin on Monday.
Mr Snowden, 39, has been living in exile in Russia since exposing the National Security Agency (NSA) programme affecting millions of Americans in 2013.
Mr Snowden, who faces espionage charges in the US, has made no public comments.
In 2020, the NSA surveillance of millions of Americans’ telephone records was ruled unlawful by the US Court of Appeals.
Mr Snowden said afterwards that he felt vindicated by the ruling.